The World with Zero Postulation: Unraveling the Mysteries of Nature…

The_World_with_Zero__Cover_facebookFrom the book…

‘…The law of universal gravitation states that any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This was the genius of Newton in seeing the same underlying force that causes all bodies in the universe, big or small, to attract each other. Using his new theory, he was able to predict with considerable accuracy the motion of planets, as well as the tiniest objects known to man in those days.

He himself was not fully comfortable, however, with the force of gravity. In a letter, he wrote ‘That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another, is to me so great an absurdity that, I believe, no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it.’ He was never able to assign a cause behind the existence of gravity. In the second edition of the Principia he wrote ‘I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena and I feign no hypotheses… It is enough that gravity does really exist and acts according to the laws I have explained, and that it abundantly serves to account for all the motions of celestial bodies.’

It is however to be noted that the idea of gravity was not an entirely new concept outside Europe. In Siddhantha Siromani (Supreme Results) gravity was described by the 11th century Indian Mathematician Bhaskaracharya in the following terms:

Aakrishti sakthischa mahee thayaa yathkhastham guru swa abhimukham swa sakthyaa . aakrushyathe thath pathathi iti bhaathi same samanthaath kwa pathathi ayam khe

It says that the earth attracts the objects in the sky by its own force towards itself. He discusses the forces between the celestial bodies using a question: Where can the celestial bodies fall since they attract each other?

It was much after the death of Isaac Newton that modern science began to learn about electricity and magnetism in details. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century a vague relationship between electricity and magnetism began to be understood, especially due to the experiments conducted by Hans Christian Ørsted, André-Marie Ampère, Jean-Baptiste Biot, Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss, Félix Savart, Michael Faraday, etc. However, the knowledge that was being gathered was vastly chaotic. James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) organized the knowledge by formulating a few general principles combining, both electricity and magnetism. His work was about finding the underlying principles that causes the various electrical and magnetic phenomena. Maxwell helped develop the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, which is a statistical means of describing aspects of the kinetic theory of gases…’

 

SnowflakesWilsonBentleyEmergence is the way complex systems and patterns arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions. This is central to the study of complex as well as chaotic systems. The simple components of the environment may form more complex emergent properties, as a whole. Relating to the closest we can get, the human perception of the world, we can say that what we perceive about the world is way greater than the signals that are fed to our bodies through our senses. When you look at a distant star, your perception of the star is way greater than the light that reaches your eyes from it.

The above image: Snowflakes (by Wilson Bentley) forming complex symmetrical patterns is an example of emergence in a physical system.

 

Read On…

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New Books on Zero Postulation!

Kindle-Cover-abstraction-book2.0Abstraction in Theory:Zero Postulation Results: Theory of Everything

From the Back Cover: This book is a way forward towards the “theory of everything” in physics.True to this gigantic task,the author approaches the subject in a completely new way.The whole theory is based on the concept of “zero-postulation”,an area where others have been less than successful. The idea of “zero-postulation” in itself is a tremendous leap in the methods applied in studying sciences.Based on no assumption,this approach is totally based on solid grounds,unlike the other theories in existence.It is a neat and satisfactory description of the world. ‘Over some years now, a large part of the energies of the scientific community has been employed solely for finding a theory that will fit in all known happenings of the physical world. Various groups of scientists have tried to attack the problem from different ends. Some of these theories have been partly successful in explaining the known physical world. However none of these theories have been without shortcomings. Be it the much lauded String Theory or the Quantum Gravity postulation or any other such attempts towards arriving at a Theory of Everything, none have been proved to be foolproof. To say the least, nobody can deny that there is room for much improvement before we can even start thinking truly towards such a theory that would describe the known world satisfactorily and provide for a single basis of understanding the four forces in nature.’

The_World_with_Zero__Cover_for_KindleThe World with Zero Postulation: Unraveling the Mysteries of Nature…

From the Back Cover: ‘A World with Zero Postulation’ is a landmark book that tells the story of the development of our understanding of the universe in as simple terms as it can be said in. Embark on an incredible journey through time, as human understanding of science journeys from the ancient age, through the medieval age, to the age. It tells, in simple language, the very recent developments in the world of science in general and of physics in particular. ‘It becomes increasingly difficult for us to predict emergent phenomena, as there is an increase in the number of properties that we have to consider for doing that. However, it should also be kept in mind than merely a large number of insignificant components, coming together and constituting a given system, is not enough to ensure that we have emergent properties. The noise that is produced may sometimes subdue the emergent properties too. ‘

The World with Zero Postulation: Unraveling the Mysteries of Nature…

In order to know about modern developments physics, you have to get a clear picture about how science (in general) and physics (in particular) developed over the course of history. Read The World With Zero Postulation, which is written in an easy manner that everybody can understand.

Start reading the The World With Zero Postulation (click here or here or visit here or here).

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Relation Between Medieval Renaissance and Today’s Open Knowledge Dissemination

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Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci

Relation Between Medieval Renaissance and Today’s Open Knowledge Dissemination

The advent of the printing press helped a lot in the democratization of knowledge and research in Medieval Europe. The arrival of the movable type printing press introduced the era of true mass communication in the western world and this, in turn, altered the fabric of the society forever. It transformed people’s lives by changing their relationship to information and knowledge. It also transformed their relationship with existing authority. It created a new breed of free thinkers, who ultimately dislodged the Dark Ages and brought about the Modern Era. Involving the ‘general public’ and saving knowledge from the hands of a select few brought about a positive change in the human society. Print created the possibility of wide and rapid circulation of ideas. This opened up a new free world where ideas could be debated and discussed. Thus the foundation of the modern scientific fervour was laid.

Print brought the ideas of thinkers,philosophers and scientists closer to the common man and made new ideas more accessible. It is a matter of debate how thinkers, like Issac Newton, could influence the thinking of the society without access to print. It would be superfluous to mention how true scientific debate started only after the invention of the printing press. The writings of thinkers outside the central sphere of science (like Thomas Paine, Voltaire, Jean Jacques Rousseau, etc.) too went a long way in shaping the world as we know it today.

However, in their time, the first printing presses were mostly viewed with skepticism. Barring a handful, most influential people opposed it. The ‘holier than thou’ expressed their fears that the world would come to and end if they let the common people use print. Even those, who welcomed the print, were apprehensive of the ‘ill’ effects that wider circulation of ideas through print could have on the world. Rulers and religious heads feared that if they did not control the printed material, their authority would vastly diminish. They wanted to have total control over what was to be printed.

In the words of Erasmus, a Latin scholar and a Catholic reformer, ‘To what corner of the world do they not fly, these swarms of new books? It may be that one here and one there contributes something worth knowing, but the very multitude of them is hurtful to scholarship, because it creates a glut, and even in good things, satiety is most harmful…(printers) fill the world with books, not just trifling things (such as I write, perhaps), but stupid, ignorant, slanderous, scandalous, raving, irreligious and seditious books, and the number of them is such that even the valuable publications lose their value.’

Erasmus’s fear pretty much sums up the apprehensions of today’s ‘intellectual elites’ and ‘printing powerhouses’. In todays world too, the Internet has brought about a transformation of the society. This is a tool that can be used for free dissemination of knowledge and of research. However, a few people even today tend to believe that free dissemination of research (that results in free and fair debates and discussions of the works) would bring about a ‘end of the world’ situation for science. They are of the opinion that they ought to have as much control as possible over the dissemination of research works in order to keep the flag of science flying. These handful of people have the audacity to believe that they must be the ‘chosen ones’ to boss over the whole of the scientific community. These are the people who oppose Open Science and Open Knowledge movements.

Time has shown us how zero control by a handful of individuals over the society and complete control of the community, as a whole, over itself brings about positive changes. Less the control by individuals or groups and more the control of the complete set of individuals, more is the positive change. The history of the printing press is a case in point. While history made a mockery of the control-freaks, it proved right the few individuals, who believed in the intellectual capacity of the masses. Intellectual Nazism should be a thing of the past and we should move away from such self-defeating practices.

As more and more researchers embrace Open practices, irrespective of the influence of any kind of authority and affiliations, a new free world of debate and discussions will truly open up.

Positive movements like the Figshare Open Science Platform have shown us how researchers can jump over all traditional deterrents and contribute positively towards the development of the scientific community, as a whole. Dissemination of research in such a place should be enough in terms of publication of research. The whole community of researchers will deliberate over these published works and not just a select few. This will take scientific dialogue forward in the true sense. As printed books replaced handwritten manuscripts, so will such Open platforms of knowledge dissemination eventually replace other non-Open pathways of dispersing knowledge.

http://figshare.com/articles/Relation_Between_Medieval_Renaissance_and_Today_s_Open_Knowledge_Dissemination/729275